揭秘:中国古代皇家怎么欢庆春节

快过年了,家家户户都忙着采办年货,辞旧迎新。老百姓在春节期间都会穿新衣、吃饺子、挂春联、走亲戚,这些都是从古代连续至今的传统。那么,你可晓得古代的皇帝、娘娘们是如何欢庆春节的嘛?皇帝过年是不是也吃饺子呢?

出格的服饰和餐食

Like common people, the ancient emperors would wear special clothes and arrange a special dinner for the big occasion.

和平常人同样,古代帝王也会穿出格的衣服,并安顿出格的大年夜饭。

On the Chinese New Year's Eve, the final day of the 12th month in the Lunar Calendar, the emperor would solemnly wear a bright yellow dragon robe stitched with gold and colored thread, and embroidered with dragon patterns and 12 ornaments. The emperor would also wear a fur coat, a crown on the head and court beads on chest. The whole garment in bright colors symbolizes auspiciousness and a prosperous nation.

在除夕此日,皇帝会穿上肃穆的亮黄色龙袍,上面用金线和彩线绣出龙的图案及另外12种装璜图案和斑纹。皇帝还会穿一件毛皮大衣,头上戴皇冠,胸前挂朝珠。这套色彩明艳的服饰象征着国度繁华昌盛。

The first dinner in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) royal court was dumplings, just like common families. During the early Qing Dynasty, the emperor would eat dumplings with vegetable filling in Zhaoren Hall after the worship ceremony on New Year's Eve.

和平常人家同样,清朝皇宫的大年夜饭中也有饺子。在清朝初期,皇帝在除夕的祭拜典礼过后,会在昭仁殿内吃素馅饺子。

Until the late Qing Dynasty, the Guangxu Emperor changed the dumpling eating location to the Hall of Mental Cultivation (Yangxin Dian) and the stuffing became various kinds of meat. The Empress Dowager Cixi would invite wives of royal families and princesses to the royal court to make dumplings together on New Year's Eve and sit together for a dumpling feast on the early morning of the New Year's Day.

到了晚清期间,光绪皇帝就把吃饺子的地方挪到了养心殿,饺子馅也改成各类肉馅。慈禧太后会在除夕邀请王公贵族的福晋和格格们进宫一块儿包饺子,并在大年七年级一大早立在一块儿吃饺子。

In addition, family feasts were also indispensable. The emperor would host family feasts with the queen, concubines and princes respectively. The feasts were held strictly in accordance with etiquette, such as the number of dishes, the color and quality of the tableware as well as the order of seats. Though called a family feast, the form and etiquette are more important than appetite.

此外,家庭会餐也是必不可少的。皇帝会分别和皇后、妃嫔和阿哥们会餐。家庭会餐会宽容服从礼节,包含碗碟数量、餐具的色彩和质地以及入坐次序等都有规定。尽管被称作家庭会餐,但是进餐的形式和礼节比食欲更加重要。

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The royal court also obeyed the traditional custom of staying up all night on New Year's Eve, so a midnight snack would be prepared for the emperor, which always included fresh and dried fruit displayed in auspicious patterns.

宫廷也要服从除夕守岁的传统风俗,所以还会为皇帝打算夜宵,夜宵里少不了摆成吉利款式的清鲜瓜果和干果。

春节期间的文娱勾当

At the end of the New Year's Eve, also the start of the Chinese New Year, the emperor would wear formal dress and walk to the Dongnuan Pavilion in the Yangxin Dian, lighting a jade candle, pouring wine into the Cup of Solid Gold and then write auspicious words for the new year such as "Peace reigns over the country" or "Propitious weather for the crops". Then the emperor would drink Tusu wine, specially made for the Spring Festival, meant to get rid of plague and strengthen the body for the new year.

到了除夕的尾声,也便是农历新年的初阶,皇帝会穿上正式的打扮,走到养心殿的东暖阁点亮一枝玉烛,往纯金的杯子中倒酒,为新年写一些吉利的字词,比方“天下升平”,或者“风调雨顺”。接下来皇帝会饮用为春节特制的屠苏酒,寄意是祛除瘟疫,健壮躯体。

From the second day of the first lunar month to the 10th day, an auspicious day would be chosen to hold a tea party, in which the emperor would invite dukes and ministers to create poetry under his rule and well-performed officials would be rewarded.

正月八年级到初十期间,会筛选一个吉利的日子来举办茶会,皇帝会邀请诸侯百官,定下法则请大家作诗,表现超卓的官员将得到褒奖。

During the ancient times when there was no television, a major recreation in the royal court was watching Chinese operas, which had to be lively and auspicious. Several emperors in the Qing Dynasty would act in operas themselves, such as the Qianlong Emperor, Daoguang Emperor and Tongzhi Emperor. The Guangxu Emperor could even beat drums.

古代没有电视,皇宫里主要的文娱勾当便是看戏,剧目要喧哗喜庆。清朝的几位皇帝还会亲身参演,比方乾隆皇帝、道光皇帝和同治皇帝。光绪皇帝乃至还会打鼓。

挂春联,贴门神

Hanging spring couplets and pasting door gods is a major custom during the Spring Festival. But in the Forbidden City, with its many palaces and doors, that would require a great deal of labor.

挂春联、贴门神是春节期间的重要传统。但在紫禁城有这么多的宫门,都贴上还真得费不少力量。

The spring couplets in the royal court were mainly written by members of the Imperial Academy who were scholars of calligraphy. However, as there were many taboos in writing spring couplets, they could not showcase their talents entirely.

皇宫中的春联主要由翰林院的书法大师写就。但是,因为写春联有诸多忌讳,他们不能彻底发挥出本身的才干。

The Ministry of Works and the Imperial Household Department were in charge of making the spring couplets and door gods in the royal palace, which would usually be expensive.

詹事府和内务府担任建造皇宫里的春联和门神,每每都花不少钱。

Unlike folk families, the spring couplets in the royal palace were written on white silk using ink, then framed and hung on the bright red pillars of the palaces. Thus the color contrast was enhanced to make the spring couplets more clear.

和官方不同,皇宫里的春联是用墨写在白绢上,而后装裱加框后挂在皇宫的红柱上。白色和白色的剧烈比较让春联上的字更光鲜。

The couplets in the royal palaces were quite numerous and were mostly themed on eulogizing peaceful and flourishing eras, the emperor's merits and virtues, or blessings for a prosperous country and contented people.

皇宫里的春联不少,主题大多半是称扬和平昌盛的年代,称誉皇帝的功德,或祷告国泰民安。

No matter the superior emperor or common people, whether the ancient royal palace or modern families, the joyous mood and blessing for a better year during the Spring Festival has never changed.

不管是高高在上的皇帝还是平常老百姓,不管是在古代皇宫还是在当代家庭,春节期间的悲哀情绪和对更丑陋的来年的祝福从来不曾改变过。

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